Neither Black Nor White: Intermarried Jews and Mischlinge during the Third Reich



clock(4) Timeline clock(4)

 1933 | 1935 | 1936 | 1937 | 1938 | 1939 | 1940 | 1941 | 1942 | 1943 | 1944 

*The purple type denotes events that do not directly deal with intermarried Jews or Mischlinge. I wanted to include them because they are events so central to Nazi Germany’s chronology that they affect all aspects of the Third Reich, including intermarried couples and Mischlinge.

 

1933

          April:           The Law for the Restoration of the Civil Service bans Jews from any civil service positions

 

          June:           The Law for the Restoration of the Civil Service is extended to spouses of Jews, forcing intermarried civil servants to resign from their post

                  

                   Marriage Loan Program begins; this program offers loans to women stopping work because of marriage and decreases repayment interest by one-fourth per child born into the marriage

 

          October:      A federal law requires all editors of German newspapers and their spouses to be Aryan

 

          November:   Doctors and dentists married to Jews are prevented from receiving health insurance

 

1935
   

          July:            The Interior Ministry orders all local registrars to defer any requests for intermarriages
   

          September:  All sexual relations between Germans and Jews are prohibited

                             15thThe Nuremberg Laws go into effect

1936

   

          October:      Intermarried German public servants are banned from receiving promotions

1937

          January:      All intermarried civil servants are forced to resign with the passage of the German Civil Service Law
   

          June:           Hitler begins slowly applying pressure to Mischlinge to resign from civil service jobs

1938
    

          July:            The National Marriage Law is passed; the Gestapo begins directly pressuring intermarried couples to divorce through required "consultations" and other intimidations (see the story of Elsa Holzer)

          August:        24th—All registered Jews must legally change their middle names to “Sara” (for females) or “Israel” (for males)

          November:   9th—Kristallnacht (The Night of Broken Glass)                                                                                                                    A photo of shop damage after Kristallnacht (6)Kristallnacht

                             11th—Drivers’ licenses are taken from Jews

1939
   

          April:           The Law of Rental Relations is passed; this law forces all Jews and intermarried Germans to move into Judenhaus and strips Jews of 300,000 Berlin apartments

1940                                                                                
                                                                                                    

          February:     11th—The first German Jews are deported to the East

          April:           8th—All German men married to Jews are expelled from the military

          July:            4th—All Jews and simple intermarried couples may only shop from 4 to 5 PM

1941
   

          October:      All "friendly relations" between Germans and Jews are prohibited

1942
   

          March:         All Jewish households are required to post the Star of David outside houses  

          May:            All pets of Jewish households ordered to be killedStar of David patch

 

          October:      27thBerlin officials meet to decide how to proceed with the intermarried Jews and Mischlinge       (5) question; it is decided to deport full intermarried Jews as well as Geltungsjuden

 

1943

         

          January:      All intermarried couples are required to register with the Jewish Community Organization in lists that are passed on to the Gestapo

         

          February:     Battle of Stalingrad; the Wermacht army suffers a huge defeat

                  

                             27th through March 6th—The Rosenstrasse Protest rocks Berlin; culminates in the release of 1,700 intermarried Jews and Mischlinge

 

          May:            21st—Ernst Kaltenbrunner issues a memorandum ordering all intermarried Jews to be released from concentration camps unless they have a criminal charge against them 

1944
   

          October:      Intermarried women required to report to forced-labor task forces

Here is a general timeline highlighting major events of the Third Reich and World War II. (8)

General timeline