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3.3    Pseudocode and Flowcharts

    Good, logical programming is developed through good pre-code planning and organization.  This is assisted by the use of pseudocode and program flowcharts.

    Flowcharts are written with program flow from the top of a page to the bottom.  Each command is placed in a box of the appropriate shape, and arrows are used to direct program flow.  The following  shapes are often used in flowcharts:


    Pseudocode is a method of describing computer algorithms using a combination of natural language and programming language.  It is essentially an intermittent step towards the development of the actual code.  It allows the programmer to formulate their thoughts on the organization and sequence of a computer algorithm without the need for actually following the exact coding syntax.  Although pseudocode is frequently used there are no set of rules for its exact implementation.  In general, here are some rules that are frequently followed when writing pseudocode:

Here is an example problem, including a flowchart, pseudocode, and the final Fortran 90 program.  This problem and solution are from Nyhoff, pg 206:

For a given value, Limit,