On this page:
Other Sections in Chapter 2:
A number of FORTRAN programs have been developed to assist students in Ceng 301 and other courses. The programs were first written before MATLAB was available for our use. The programs would look simpler in MATLAB, but they run faster in FORTRAN so the incentive to convert them is not there. The main group of eight programs perform the following functions:
Converts Units for any Numeric Data and most units.
Determines the Molecular Weight and Atomic Makeup of a Compound
Sets up an Atomic Matrix for use in Finding the number
Element Balance programs
Determines thermodynamic properties of steam.
Determines properties of humid air
The cengfort program is menu driven so you choose
among several options to execute or get information about each of the
programs. The main menu also gives a very brief description of each
program as an aid in getting acquainted with the names. The programs
run on various PC platforms as well as on Owlnet. We have tried to
make them perform the same way on all platforms, but there are minor
differences associated with file systems and the way you initiate the
programs. On Owlnet, as long as you have registered for ceng301, you
simply type the name of the program you want to execute:
wsname% cengfort *************************************************** Chemical Engineering FORTRAN Programs Choose your Response from the Following Menu: Option Respond STOP stop Get Information about Programs. info See a Demo of one of the programs. demo Construct Atomic Matrix for Compounds. atm Convert Units convu List the Unit Names convh Find Compound Name & Formula Weight. fwt Give Molar Flows in Element Balance. el1 Give Molar & Mass Flows in Element Balance. el2 Store Flows in a File read for Element Balance. el3 Get Steam Properties. steam Get Humid Air Properties. humid ***************************************************
Now you may choose any of the 12 options listed in this menu. For example, if you want information about the program that will "Find Compound Name & Formula Weight", you can reply: info to then see
Get Information about Programs. *************************************************** Which Program do you want information about? Choose your Response from the Following Menu: Option Respond Construct Atomic Matrix for Compounds. atm Convert Units convu List the Unit Names convh Find Compound Name & Formula Weight. fwt Give Molar Flows in Element Balance. el1 Give Molar & Mass Flows in Element Balance. el2 Store Flows in a File read for Element Balance. el3 Get Steam Properties. steam Get Humid Air Properties. humid ***************************************************
Here is where you give the name of the program you want information about:
The program will then list a file stored for that program:
Information about the Formula Weight Program: fwt This program may be used to find the molecular or formula weights for compounds with known molecular formulas. The program also trys to find the names of the compounds and will report alll names that it finds in the data file: namfor.t. Finally, it will put the mol weights into a form that is suitable for copying to MATLAB. This last feature is less useful in the Rice Chemical engineering MATLAB programs than it was before 1994, since the recent versions of the programs: setnm and setname automatically set molecular weights into a vector called mw. When you are ready to continue cengfort, hit the RETURN key
Hitting the return key at this point will bring up the main menu again and you can then choose to execute the program you asked about or you can get more inforamtion or see a demonstration of the program. Note that the replys to execute the programs or get inforation about them are identical to the names of the programs you would use at a Unix prompt.
The source programs on Owlnet for all the main programs discussed in this chapter are in the directory:
The subprograms used by those main programs are in the directory:
All these programs may be listed and used to create other FORTRAN applications. Compiled versions of the subroutines used by these the main programs are in the directory:
All executables are in the directory:
The FORTRAN executables include all eight programs discussed in
this chapter. Thus all the programs may be directly accessed by
typing their names. This is simpler than using
cengfort, but it has the disadvantage that you must
remember the correct program name. When you begin to become
acquainted with the programs cengfort can be helpful
in reminding you of the names and giving you information about how to
use them. Similar information is included in these notes, but it is
not nearly as helpful if you do not have the notes with you when you
are trying to use our software.
There are many unit conversion programs that you may find useful
as students and in your work. One of these is the Unix command:
units that will allow you to convert many units from a
variety of sources. If you try it, you may find it somewhat difficult
to determine how to use it and even more important when it will work.
Use the man units command to read about it and to
get the very long list of conversion factors that it does know about.
This list is included in the file mentioned near the end of the
manual page for units. One of the problems with this general
unit conversion program is that many of the units that you will use
frequently in your engineering courses are not included. For example
it does not know about the pressure unit Pa. The two FORTRAN
programs: convu and convh were specifically written
to allow you to convert nearly all units that you will encounter in
your engineering courses.
The unit equivalences shown in Table 2.3-1 may be used to convert units for most numeric data that you are likely to see in engineering. The data in Table 2.3-1 together with other unit conversions (both numeric and character) are stored in a file read by a FORTRAN program so that the unit conversion process may be done automatically. This program is called convu. Chemical engineering students have found the convu program to be a very useful aid in working problems for this and other courses.
The file convu.f used to create the program convu is stored in ~ceng301/prgf. It is very short since it simply calls the subroutine in convus.f. That subroutine plus several others do the bulk of the work involved in unit conversions. A file used to list the unit abbreviations is called convh.f.
MASS SI UNIT: ONE kg = 2.20462 lbm = 1000.00 g = 35.2739 oz = 0.110231E-02 ton = 0.100000E-02 met ton = 0.984210E-03 lng ton = 15432.3 grain LENGTH SI UNIT: ONE m = 3.28084 ft = 39.3702 in = 0.621371E-03 mi = 1.09361 yd = 0.100000E+11 angst = 0.539594E-03 naut mi = 0.546807 fath TIME SI UNIT: ONE s = 0.166667E-01 min = 0.277778E-03 hr = 0.115740E-04 day = 0.165343E-05 wk = 0.316879E-07 yr PREFIX SI UNIT: ONE 1 = 0.100000E-05 M = 0.100000E-02 k = 100.000 c = 1000.00 m = 0.100000E+07 mu = 0.100000E+10 n = 0.100000E-08 G = 10.0000 d = 0.100000E-11 T = 0.100000 da VOLUME SI UNIT: ONE m3 = 1.00000 m3 = 1000.00 liter = 0.100000E+07 cm3 = 35.3147 ft3 = 264.170 gal = 61023.7 in3 = 220.830 imp gal FORCE SI UNIT: ONE N = 1.00000 kg m/s2 = 100000. dyne = 100000. g cm/s2 = 0.224810 lbf = 7.23304 #mft/s2 PRESSURE SI UNIT: ONE Pa = 1.00000 N/m2 = 0.986923E-05 atm = 0.100000E-04 bar = 10.0000 dyn/cm2 = 0.750063E-02 mm Hg = 0.101979E-03 m H2O = 0.145038E-03 psi = 0.750062E-02 torr = 0.295297E-03 in Hg ENERGY SI UNIT: ONE J = 1.00000 N m = 0.100000E+08 erg = 0.277800E-06 kW hr = 0.239010 cal = 0.737600 ft lbf = 0.948600E-03 Btu = 0.239010E-03 kcal = 0.239010E-03 kg cal POWER SI UNIT: ONE W = 1.00000 J/s = 0.239010 cal/s = 0.737600 ft #f/s = 0.94860E-03 Btu/s = 0.134100E-02 hp TEMPERATURE SI UNIT: ONE K = 1.80000 R MOLS SI UNIT: ONE mol = 0.1000E-02 kg mol = 0.220462E-02 lb mol = 0.100000E-05 ton mol VISCOSITY SI UNIT: ONE Pas = 1.00000 Pa s = 1.00000 kg/m/s = 10 poise = 10 g/cm/s = 1000 cp = 0.671969 lbm/fts = 2.0886E-2 #fs/ft2 = 2.4191E3 #m/fthr THERMAL COND. SI UNIT: ONE tc = 1.00000 W/m/K = 1.00000 kgm/s3K = 100000 gcm/s3K = 4.0183 #mf/s3F = 0.12489 #f/sF = 2.3901E-3 cl/scmK = 0.5778 Btu/hrF Momentm Diff SI UNIT: ONE dif = 1.00000 m2/s = 10000 cm2/s = 3.875E4 ft2/hr = 1000000 cstokes Heat Transfer SI UNIT: ONE htc = 1.00000 W/m2/K = 1.00000 kg/s3/K = 1000 g/s3/K = 1.2248 #m/s3F = 3.8068E-2 #f/ftsF = 2.3901E-5 cl/c2sK = 10E-4 W/cm2/K = 0.17611 Btu/ft2hrF Mass Transfer SI UNIT: ONE k = 1.00000 kg/m2/s = 0.1 g/cm2/s = 0.20482 #m/ft2/s = 6.3659E-3 #f s/ft3 = 737.3 #m/ft2hr
You may execute the unit conversion program and its companion with either cengfort or more directly by answering the % prompt in an xterm wndow with convu or convh as in:
You can see the abbreviations used for the units if you execute the convh program. The current version (1995) gives:
wsname% convh Here are the SI Abbreviations and what they measure. Index Measures SI Unit Abbreviation 1 Mass kg 2 Length m 3 time s 4 Units 1 5 Volume m3 6 Force N 7 Pressure Pa 8 Energy J 9 Energy/time W 10 Abs. Temp. K 11 mole mol 12 Viscosity Pas 13 Thermal Cond. tc 14 Momenturm Diff dif 15 Heat Transfer htc 16 Mass Transfer k If you want to see the names of other units that go with one of these give the index or 0 to STOP. 6 Other abbreviations for Force besides the SI Unit=N kg m/s2 dyne g cm/s2 lbf #mft/s2 If you want to look at some more abbreviations, Reply: y
If you reply anything other than y to the last prompt (including just hit the return key,) you will then exit convh. If you want this information during an execution of convu, it will be convenient to get it in a Scrolling Shell window separate from the window used with convu, so you can scroll back to previously listed abbreviations.
Execution of convu gives:
wsname% convu Give the NUMERICAL value to be converted.
You may then give any numerical value you want. It may be an integer, a real number including a decimal point or a real in scientific notation. The following are acceptable:
5 or -5.245 or 5E-5 or 5.24E10 or 5e-5 or 5.24e10
The following are not acceptable:
5,000 or 5 e-5 or 5e -5
will lead to another prompt:
Give the NUMERATOR of the OLD units.
Your answer must be no longer than 70 characters. It may include any of the unit names in the table listed. If more than one name is included, each must be separated by an asterisk from its neighbor(s). Your reply should not be entirely blank. If the number has no units in its numerator give 1 as a reply. For example:
The next prompt asks you to:
Give the DENOMINATOR of the OLD units.
A blank reply or any set of names of units separated by *'s is acceptable. Again the total length must be no more than 70 characters long. A Blank reply would then produce:
Give the NUMERATOR of the NEW units.
This prompt may be answered in the same way as the one for the old
units. The reply:
will then give the final prompt:
Give the DENOMINATOR of the NEW units.
A blank reply will then give the result:
To change from your old units to the new ones multiply by: 264.170 1.000000 m3 = 264.1699 gal If you want to convert another measure, reply: y
You may continue by typing y after the last prompt. Here are a few
more examples that followed in the same session:
y Give the NUMERICAL value to be converted. 0.7302 Give the NUMERATOR of the OLD units. ft3*atm Give the DENOMINATOR of the OLD units. lb mol*R Give the NUMERATOR of the NEW units. m3*Pa Give the DENOMINATOR of the NEW units. mol*K To change from your old units to the new ones multiply by: 11.3859 0.7302000 ft3*atm/(lb mol*R) = 8.313989 m3*Pa/(mol*K) If you want to convert another measure, reply: y y
Give the NUMERICAL value to be converted. 221.559 Give the NUMERATOR of the OLD units. J Give the DENOMINATOR of the OLD units. g Give the NUMERATOR of the NEW units. m*m Give the DENOMINATOR of the NEW units. s*s To change from your old units to the new ones multiply by: 1000.000 221.5590 J/(g) = 221559.0 m*m/(s*s) If you want to convert another measure, reply: y y
Give the NUMERICAL value to be converted. 4 Give the NUMERATOR of the OLD units. ft3 Give the DENOMINATOR of the OLD units. s Give the NUMERATOR of the NEW units. m Give the DENOMINATOR of the NEW units. mol YOUR UNITS ARE INCONSISTENT. The old base SI units are:kg ** 0;m ** 3;s ** -1;K ** 0;mol** 0; The new base SI units are:kg ** 0;m ** 1;s ** 0;K ** 0;mol** -1; If you want to convert another measure, reply: y
The FORTRAN program fwt and associated subroutines may be used to determine the molecular weight and atomic makeup of any given compound when you know the formula for it. For many compounds you will also be told the name for the compound. The compound names are stored in the file:
and currently contains the names for most organic compounds that
are involved in problems in this course together with a large number
of inorganic compounds. As time permits, we will add more inorganic
and organic names. An example session with the program is shown
wsname% fwt <-- Starting the session Find Compound Name & Formula Weight. For each Formula you Give, fwt will report: 1) the number of atoms of each element in it, 2) its molecular weight and 3) its name if it is in the chemical engineering compound list: namfor.t Give the formula or stop to STOP H2SO4 <-- One compound Element Number: 1 16 8 Number of Atoms: 2 1 4 Molecular Weight= 98.07340 Name: Sulfuric Acid Give the formula or stop to STOP CO2 <-- A second compound Element Number: 6 8 Number of Atoms: 1 2 Molecular Weight= 44.00980 Name: Carbon Dioxide Give the formula or stop to STOP stop Formula Molecular Weight Name H2SO4 98.0734 Sulfuric Acid CO2 44.0098 Carbon Dioxide If you want the mol wts. printed for copying to MATLAB, reply: y y mw=[ 98.0734 44.0098]
The atomic matrix discussed in Section 4.1.1 of Reklaitis may be produced for any set of compounds with the program atm. A sample session with this program looked like:
wsname% atm <-- Starting the session GIVE THE FORMULA FOR COMPOUND 1 OR STOP TO STOP. H2SO4 <-- One formula GIVE THE FORMULA FOR COMPOUND 2 OR STOP TO STOP. H2O <-- Another GIVE THE FORMULA FOR COMPOUND 3 OR STOP TO STOP. C6H6 <-- One more GIVE THE FORMULA FOR COMPOUND 4 OR STOP TO STOP. stop <-- Quitting COMPOUND 1 2 3 H 2 2 6 S 1 0 0 O 4 1 0 C 0 0 6